Coverdale Farm Preserve

All posts tagged Coverdale Farm Preserve

Ian Stewart & Lori Athey

Now that spring is here many Delawareans are enjoying the colorful wildflowers blooming in their backyard, local parks and road sides. Unfortunately, the great majority of those currently flowering are alien weeds which were either deliberately or accidentally introduced by Europeans. These plants found themselves in a new environment with few or no natural enemies and spread rapidly across our area. Each weed produces hundreds if not thousands of seeds and an entire backyard can be riddled with them in just a few years.

The three most common yellow-flowered weeds have been covered in a previous blog (http://blog.delawarenaturesociety.org/2015/05/06/the-not-so-mellow-yellows/) and this follow-up blog highlights some of the other visually-appealing wildflowers that people may not realize are aggressively invasive aliens.

Three common backyard weeds stay low but spread rapidly to form sun-blocking carpets that inhibit or prevent the growth of any native seeds beneath them. Speedwell (Veronica sp.) is one of the first wildflowers to emerge and its four-petaled circular blue flower can be seen as early as March. There are several species of speedwell but most are alien. Ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea) produces dozens of tiny purple flowers and spreads by underground rhizomes which makes it especially difficult to control since pulling one part of the plant will not suffice. Clover (Trifolium sp.) is particularly common in farm fields, perhaps because it may have been introduced as livestock feed, but is now ubiquitous in urban and suburban settings. Clovers have three leaves, each with a distinctive white chevron, though finding one with four leaves may bring you luck! There are two sister species, the red and white clover, which are named after the color of their flower.

Speedwell (Left) and Clover (Right)

Ground ivy

Two striking members of the Mint family also stay quite low to the ground but are easily seen because they often grow in large patches. Purple deadnettle (Lamium purpureum) and henbit (L. amplexicaule, also known as clasping deadnettle) often grow together in fields and backyard although the former is much more common.

purple deadnettle

Henbit

Finally, three conspicuous white-flowered members of the Mustard family are widespread throughout the Piedmont. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolate) and roadside penny-cress (Thlaspi alliaceum) are both knee-high single-stemmed weeds which form large clumps in sunny areas, while hairy bittercress (Cardamine hirsute) is quite a bit smaller and branches into multiple small flowers.

Garlic mustard

roadside penny-cress

Penny-cress up close

Purple deadnettle (on left) and hairy bittercress (on right)

These alien wildflowers are especially problematic because they bloom in early spring and may have already produced seeds before householders begin mowing. Although it is an uphill battle, most weeds can be controlled by hand-pulling them before they go to seed, especially if the whole root system is removed.  Repeated early mowing or weed-whacking will deplete the weeds’ resources before they even flower. If you have a large yard or field an alternative option is to gradually convert it into a meadow with long grass and native wildflowers which is left standing throughout the winter and early spring. This helps to restrict early-growing weeds like ground ivy and deadnettle by reducing the amount of sunlight they receive.

Once you have removed the alien weeds you can replace them with native wildflowers which are much better for wildlife, especially our declining pollinator insects as well as the animals that feed on them. A perfect opportunity is the Delaware Nature Society’s Native Plant Sale which is held at Coverdale Farm in Greenville. It starts with a member’s-only day on Thursday May 2nd (1pm-7pm; though you are welcome to attend and join in person) and is then open to the public Friday May 3rd (3pm-7pm) and Saturday May 4th (9am – 3pm). Admission is free and there will be plenty of staff and volunteers present to answer any questions about plants and help you load them into your car!

The full catalog is online here but just to whet your appetite, here is a selection of groundcover plants which are tough and fast-growing and have a decent chance at outcompeting those pesky weeds!

Dry sunny location

Andropogon virginicus (Broom Sedge) grass

Coreopsis verticillata (Whorled Tickseed) perennial

Geum fragarioides (Barren Strawberry) evergreen perennial

Phlox subulata (Moss Phlox) evergreen perennial

 

Dry shaded location

Antennaria plantaginifolia (Woman’s Tobacco Pussytoes) semi-evergreen perennial

Chasmanthium latifolium (Wild Oats) grass

Geranium maculatum (Wild Geranium) perennial

Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas Fern) evergreen fern

 

Moist shaded location

Asarum canadense (Wild Ginger) perennial

Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (Cinnamon Fern) fern

Phlox stolonifera (Creeping Phlox) perennial

Zizia aurea (Golden Alexanders) perennial

 

Moist to wet sunny location

Carex cherokeensis (Cherokee Sedge) grass

Eupatorium perfoliatum (Boneset) perennial

Iris versicolor (Blue Flag) perennial

Panicum virgatum (Switchgrass) grass

 

By Ian Stewart

Delaware Nature Society has over 200 nest boxes spread around the properties we own or help manage which we installed to provide nest sites for a variety of birds. Every summer these boxes are monitored by a team of volunteers who track over 100 nesting attempts by 5-6 bird species (and we are always looking for more people to help with this – please get in touch if you’d like to get involved!). You’d be wrong to think the boxes stand idle throughout the winter however – it’s just that most of the action now takes place at night!

Several birds often roost in them during the winter, including Screech Owls, Eastern Bluebirds and some woodpeckers, which they probably do to protect them from the elements such as wind and rain. It is likely several degrees warmer inside a nest box than outside of it and for a small bird on a very cold night this could be the difference between life and death. Bluebirds take this a little further and are famous for ‘bundling’, where several birds squeeze into the same box for the night, probably keeping each other warm with their body heat.

A male bluebird entering a nest box

A male bluebird entering a nest box in winter

This year we’re making a special effort to check our boxes during the winter too. Sometimes it’s obvious that birds have been roosting in our boxes as they leave their droppings behind. The droppings in the photo below were almost certainly from a bluebird that has been eating Oriental Bittersweet. Bluebirds usually eat insects but at this time of year these are hard to find so they switch their diet to berries, and this exotic invasive vine is one of the few local plants that still has berries on it in February. You can help bluebirds in winter by planting berry-producing native bushes and shrubs such as Winterberry, Viburnums and Hollies. We will be following these boxes all through the year to see if bluebirds end up nesting in the same boxes that were used in winter.

Bluebird droppings inside a nest box

Bluebird droppings show they have been using this nest box

It’s also worth checking nest boxes in winter for less-desirable occupants. About 10% of our nest boxes are occupied by white-footed or deer mice during the winter. These nocturnal mice build fluffy nests inside boxes and sleep in them during the day. We always dump out mice and their nests during the winter, which may seem unkind but if left in place their urine and feces can damage boxes or carry disease, and birds won’t use boxes already occupied by mice. If you do this yourself, don’t use your hands to dislodge mice and their nests in case you pick up any disease or get bitten, but instead gently ease out the box contents with a stout stick.

Two deer mice fast asleep in this box

Two deer mice fast asleep in this box

This box at Coverdale Farm Preserve contained a furry nest with no fewer than 15 uneaten hickory nuts, which was interesting as this is not a common tree at the Preserve. These had probably been stored in the box by a Flying Squirrel, a nocturnal mammal which does not hibernate and requires food all winter. The squirrel cached the nuts here to provide a food supply for later in the winter, so to be sure the little guy wouldn’t go hungry we left the nuts below the box.

Hickory nuts cached in this nest box by a flying squirrel

Hickory nuts cached in this nest box by a flying squirrel

So just because you never see anything going inside your nest boxes in winter, don’t assume they aren’t being used!

By Shannon Giordano, Public Relations & Social Media Coordinator

Fall is a prime time for planting trees, and Delaware Nature Society has planted quite a few in the last three weeks. Planting trees in the fall can be the best time because the trees are going dormant for the winter and the ground is often very moist, which means when spring comes and the soil starts to warm, the trees will be ready to grow.

In the past several weeks, Delaware Nature Society has planted over 600 trees at three locations. On October 27 at Coverdale Farm Preserve, the planting of 12 enormous Red Oaks and Bicolor Oaks with 9 foot root balls and full canopies began. They were brought in one at a time by truck and are being placed in a section of field that is currently used for feed hay. This planting is part of Coverdale’s 10-year Master Plan. The field the trees were planted in will be turned into a grazing pasture that will house movable animal shelters. These trees were planted in a specific area in order to create a buffer for the Farm’s neighbors, and provide shade and forage for the livestock. All 12 of the trees have been put into the ground and other areas of the farm are designated for reforestation in the future. A big thank you goes to Hank Davis who not only funded the purchase of the trees, but hand selected the trees and is also funding their installation. Hank is a true champion of Coverdale Farm Preserve, and for that we are ever grateful.

Last weekend, two large tree planting events were held on Saturday morning. The first event took place at Middle Run Natural Area where approximately 150 volunteers helped to plant 400 trees. The tree planting is just one aspect of the biodiversity management project that Delaware Nature Society manages at Middle Run under contract with New Castle County. Jim White, DelNature’s Senior Fellow for Land Biodiversity Management, heads up the planting efforts each year. “We are working to increase the park’s forest habitat as well as to increase stream buffers next to Middle Run, which is a tributary of White Clay Creek,” says Jim. Increasing forest habitat provides food and shelter for a wide variety of native wildlife. Stream buffers slow down and filter pollutants and help to reduce erosion. Tree planting also has many other benefits, including making a positive impact on climate change. County Executive, Matthew Meyer also attended the event, lending a hand with the planting. Since 1991, thousands of volunteers have helped to plant about 55,000 trees at this New Castle County park, which is located near Paper Mill and Possum Park roads in Newark.

The second planting event last weekend was held at DuPont Environmental Education Center (DEEC). The Rotary Club of Wilmington planted 200 trees in the Russel Peterson Urban Wildlife Refuge with staff from the DNREC Division of Fish and Wildlife.  The project was funded by members of the Rotary Club who donated $2,000 for the trees along with funding from DNREC. The tree planting is part of an effort over the past 20 years to restore the freshwater tidal marsh with native plants to provide habitat for waterfowl, song birds, deer, raccoon, beaver, and even river otter. The Rotary Club of Wilmington planted the trees as part of a challenge to all Rotary Clubs across the globe. International Rotary President, Ian H.S. Riseley challenged every Rotary club to make a difference by planting one tree for each of its members between the start of the Rotary year on July 1, 2017 and Earth Day on April 22, 2018.

A sincere thank you to everyone who was a part of each of these events!

By Ian Stewart, Ornithologist

“I think that I shall never see, a poem lovely as a tree” (Joyce Kilmer, 1913).

Trying to identify trees is a lot of fun and can be done by anyone with both patience and a good field guide because almost all trees belonging to the same species have the same general appearance in terms of their size, bark, and leaf shape and arrangement. Still, sometimes one comes across a specimen that stands out from the others, perhaps because of its unusual appearance or location. These are my four favorite trees found on DelNature lands.

1) This massive American Sycamore is affectionately known as “Old Mr Knobbles” and is a much-visited centerpiece of the Ashland Nature Center floodplain. Although there are several huge Sycamores growing along the creek they all have a single vertical trunk whereas this specimen has two equally thick trunks, one of which seems to defy gravity by growing almost horizontally!

American Sycamore, Ashland Nature Center

“Old Mr Knobbles” American Sycamore, Ashland Nature Center

2) This Gray Birch stands alone in the corner of the hilltop behind Coverdale Farm. There was a pair of Gray Birches standing side by side here for many years but one was blown down by a storm in the spring of 2016, leaving this distinctively-colored tree standing forlornly against a dramatic backdrop of sweeping fields.

Gray Birch, Coverdale Farm Preserve

Gray Birch, Coverdale Farm Preserve

3) The great majority of trees have just one trunk but this monster Bitternut Hickory hidden away in the woods of Coverdale Farm Preserve has no fewer than six! Although one of the trunks is fairly small and another two are joined at the base it is still an unusual tree as the six trunks form a neat crown that supports the many branches.

Bitternut Hickory with Six Trunks, Coverdale Farm Preserve

Bitternut Hickory with Six Trunks, Coverdale Farm Preserve

4) Swamp Oak. This striking pale gray tree is tucked away in a dark corner of Burrows Run Preserve. As with White Oaks the trunk is relatively smooth near the base but begins to peel and flake further up the tree. However the peeling is so pronounced on Swamp Oaks that the bark seems to hang in sheets like plates of armor!

Swamp Oak, Burrows Run Preserve

Swamp Oak, Burrows Run Preserve

The Plate-Like Bark of a Swamp Oak, Burrows Run Preserve

The Plate-Like Bark of a Swamp Oak, Burrows Run Preserve

There are many beautiful trees scattered around our properties. Next time you walk our trails be sure to look carefully into the woods – you may find your own favorite tree!