Burrows Run Preserve

Ian Stewart

Happy New Year everyone! If you’re looking for an interesting New Year’s Resolution to get you outdoors, why not seek out and learn about a different tree every month? This is exactly the time of year to spot one of Delaware’s most distinctive trees – the Osage orange.

The Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree native to the Midwest that was originally restricted to a relatively small stretch of Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas. It is not related to oranges but is in the Mulberry family. The name refers to the bright orange color of its wood and the Osage Nation, a midwestern Native American tribe who used the wood for making bows and apparently supplied early settlers with young plants.

The exposed orange roots of a fallen Osage

Although their original range was small, Osage oranges are now found throughout the lower 48 states after lines of them were planted to provide windbreaks in flat open landscapes such as farmland and isolated homesteads. Lines of Osages were also planted throughout the rest of the country to act as natural thorny fencerows for housing livestock and to delineate driveways and land borders, which is why you most often find Delaware Osages arranged in rows on either side of old country roads. Coverdale Farm Preserve’s famous ‘Avenue of the Osages’ contains no fewer than 72 of these striking trees which were probably planted over a hundred years ago.

Coverdale Farm’s famous ‘Avenue of the Osages’, with fallen fruit in foreground

Gnarly, orange-tinged bark of an Osage

The easiest time of year to identify Osage oranges is in the middle of winter as the bare trees now reveal their distinctive gnarled orange-tinged bark made up of many twisted strips. Some trees still bear their large green fruit, commonly known as ‘monkey brains’, although most of these have now fallen to the ground. Be careful – if they fall on a sidewalk or road they become a slippery hazard to pedestrians and motorists alike!

Osage orange fruit with knobbled surface

Interior of an Osage fruit with some seeds

Osages occur as either male or female trees but only the female trees produce the softball-sized fruit which contains several small seeds within its gooey white flesh. Although the fruit is edible almost all animals ignore it as it is tough, unpalatable and exudes latex, so the clusters of monkey brains simply remain where they fall until they decay. Squirrels do eat the seeds however, which may be why you see so few young trees mixed in with the old ones.

Interestingly, almost every Osage I see has a poison ivy vine growing up its trunk, perhaps because the vine finds it easy to grip onto the furrowed bark. Next time you are a passenger in a car being driven along a country lane, try to spot some rows of Osage oranges. If you spot some it might make you resolve to learn about our local trees in 2019!

This Osage was cut down at Coverdale and has about 90 growth rings, suggesting it was at least 90 years old. The poison ivy vine seen in cross-section on the left of the trunk had 19 growth rings so it had been attached for many years.

By Ian Stewart

Delaware Nature Society has over 200 nest boxes spread around the properties we own or help manage which we installed to provide nest sites for a variety of birds. Every summer these boxes are monitored by a team of volunteers who track over 100 nesting attempts by 5-6 bird species (and we are always looking for more people to help with this – please get in touch if you’d like to get involved!). You’d be wrong to think the boxes stand idle throughout the winter however – it’s just that most of the action now takes place at night!

Several birds often roost in them during the winter, including Screech Owls, Eastern Bluebirds and some woodpeckers, which they probably do to protect them from the elements such as wind and rain. It is likely several degrees warmer inside a nest box than outside of it and for a small bird on a very cold night this could be the difference between life and death. Bluebirds take this a little further and are famous for ‘bundling’, where several birds squeeze into the same box for the night, probably keeping each other warm with their body heat.

A male bluebird entering a nest box

A male bluebird entering a nest box in winter

This year we’re making a special effort to check our boxes during the winter too. Sometimes it’s obvious that birds have been roosting in our boxes as they leave their droppings behind. The droppings in the photo below were almost certainly from a bluebird that has been eating Oriental Bittersweet. Bluebirds usually eat insects but at this time of year these are hard to find so they switch their diet to berries, and this exotic invasive vine is one of the few local plants that still has berries on it in February. You can help bluebirds in winter by planting berry-producing native bushes and shrubs such as Winterberry, Viburnums and Hollies. We will be following these boxes all through the year to see if bluebirds end up nesting in the same boxes that were used in winter.

Bluebird droppings inside a nest box

Bluebird droppings show they have been using this nest box

It’s also worth checking nest boxes in winter for less-desirable occupants. About 10% of our nest boxes are occupied by white-footed or deer mice during the winter. These nocturnal mice build fluffy nests inside boxes and sleep in them during the day. We always dump out mice and their nests during the winter, which may seem unkind but if left in place their urine and feces can damage boxes or carry disease, and birds won’t use boxes already occupied by mice. If you do this yourself, don’t use your hands to dislodge mice and their nests in case you pick up any disease or get bitten, but instead gently ease out the box contents with a stout stick.

Two deer mice fast asleep in this box

Two deer mice fast asleep in this box

This box at Coverdale Farm Preserve contained a furry nest with no fewer than 15 uneaten hickory nuts, which was interesting as this is not a common tree at the Preserve. These had probably been stored in the box by a Flying Squirrel, a nocturnal mammal which does not hibernate and requires food all winter. The squirrel cached the nuts here to provide a food supply for later in the winter, so to be sure the little guy wouldn’t go hungry we left the nuts below the box.

Hickory nuts cached in this nest box by a flying squirrel

Hickory nuts cached in this nest box by a flying squirrel

So just because you never see anything going inside your nest boxes in winter, don’t assume they aren’t being used!

Autumn among the beeches

Ian Stewart

If life is getting you down or you’re feeling particularly stressed why not take a gentle afternoon stroll through a beech wood? Walking through a beech wood in the fall is a serene experience that will instantly melt away your troubles. And if you look closely, the beeches have a few surprises in store…..

The American Beech (Fagus grandifolia) is a fairly common tree across almost all of the eastern United States and is easily recognized by its smooth, pale gray bark and its above-ground ‘knees’ formed by the tops of its shallow roots. We have several stands of old, large beech trees around our DNS sites because early settlers tended to leave them alone as they often grow on hillsides which aren’t attractive sites for home building or farming, and also because their hard wood is difficult to cut.

At this time of year the ground beneath a beech wood is littered with a carpet of their golden leaves and if you wait long enough you will see a variety of mammals and birds rustling though them in search of fallen beech nuts. These distinctive triangular nuts emerge in pairs from their tough, furry husks when ripe and are beloved by deer, squirrels and Blue Jays and were apparently the favored food of the extinct Passenger Pigeon. Beech nuts are edible to humans once they have been peeled although they are apparently bitter and may even be toxic in large quantities so we do not recommend that you eat them.

Part of the reason beech woods are so attractive to walk through is that they are remarkably open, with very little understory of bushes or shrubs to navigate through. This is because beech trees are thought to be allelopathic, meaning they exude a chemical into the soil around them which inhibits the growth of other plants. Sometimes the only plant you see growing near a beech tree is a ring of ‘root sprouts’ growing around its trunk, which is a direct way through which beech trees spread in addition to their nuts.

Still, despite their placid outward appearance beech woods are tinged with intrigue. If you get down on your hands and knees you will notice that most of the trees have a circle of mysterious brown weedy stems around their base. These are known as Beechdrops (Epifagus virginiana) and are among a handful of plants that don’t photosynthesize but instead live parasitically by burrowing into the roots of beech trees and extracting their nutrients.

So please take the time to explore a beech wood this fall, but be sure to appreciate the small struggles going on underneath these giant trees!

Ian Stewart, Ornithologist

One of the best ways to connect with nature is to monitor bird nest boxes. Regularly checking the contents of an active nest box lets you watch the whole breeding cycle unfold before your very eyes! It starts with nest building, progresses through egg laying and nestling rearing and then (hopefully) ends with the young birds successfully leaving the nest.

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Using an mirror to count Bluebird eggs

The Delaware Nature Society has a team of eager volunteers who monitor over two hundred boxes spread throughout several properties and every year brings more data and surprises. Our most common occupants are Tree Swallows, Eastern Bluebirds and House Wrens but most years we attract a few Carolina Chickadees, Carolina Wrens and Tufted Titmice. One year we had a White-breasted Nuthatch use one of our boxes – who knows what species might show up next?!

Chickadee on nest

Opening this nest box revealed a Carolina Chickadee sitting tightly on a nest. In these cases we leave the bird alone and retreat.

Checking boxes lets you see for yourself the many differences between each species in the way their nests are built, the shape and color of their eggs, and the appearance of their nestlings, as well as the nesting quirks of different birds. Did you know for instance that House Wrens often add spider cocoons to their nest, probably because the spider hatchlings eat arthropod pests mixed in among the nest lining?

Wren nest with spiders

House Wren nest lining dotted with spider cocoons

Our boxes remain in place year-round and provide winter refuges for both welcome and (slightly) unwelcome guests. Eastern Bluebirds roost in our boxes overnight during the winter, presumably to help them stay warm, and sometimes bundle together in the same box. Last winter one of our boxes at Coverdale Farm Preserve had an enlarged entrance hole and was filled with acorns from the huge old Red Oaks that line the driveway. This was probably a squirrel using the box to cache a supply of acorns to chomp on if a sudden snowfall made food hard to find.

chewed box

acorns

Mice also like to spend the winter in our boxes so we have to bump them out to allow the birds to nest. Can you spot the two mice jumping out of the box?

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We have been cleaning out our boxes to get them ready for spring and the birds are checking them out already so nesting isn’t far away! We can always use an extra person or two to help monitor nest boxes at Coverdale Farm or the Red Clay Reservation near Greenville, or Abbott’s Mill near Milford, so if you want to get involved just give us a call on (302) 239-2334. Boxes only need to be checked once a week and monitoring them makes a great excuse for talking a walk on a summer evening or weekend at these beautiful sites. All of our data are submitted to Cornell University’s ‘Nest Watch’ scheme so we are contributing to science as well as simply enjoying nature.

If you’d rather put up your own nest boxes why not join our upcoming program (April 27th at Ashland followed by a field trip to Coverdale on April 29th) to get advice on how to design and position boxes in order to attract nesting birds to your property? Having birds nest in a box you built yourself is a tremendously satisfying experience that may be repeated for many summers to come!

Tree swallows on box

A pair of excited Tree Swallows start building their nest in a brand-new box