Botany

Ian Stewart

Jewelweed is a colorful native annual wildflower that is common in damp marshy areas where it grows as a thin bush about 4 feet high. It is also known as ‘touch-me-not’ because of its curious habit of expelling its projectile seeds when the flowers are handled or brushed against. Jewelweed is a classic folk remedy because the juice of its leaves and stems is a well-known antidote to stings and rashes from stinging nettle, which it often grows close to.

Jewelweed growing along the boardwalk at Ashland

Many Delawareans are familiar with jewelweed as it is often found in shaded suburban gardens and parks, but few people realize that there are two species and they usually grow right next to each other! The most common is spotted jewelweed (Impatiens capensis), which is also known as orange jewelweed. This has bright orange petals densely covered with red spots and a long ‘nectar spur’ which curls along the bottom of the flower. The second, less-common species is yellow jewelweed (Impatiens pallida), which is also known as pale jewelweed. This has larger, yellow flowers with only a smattering of red spots and a shorter nectar spur which dangles downward. The leaves of yellow jewelweed have more veins and are more deeply toothed than those of the orange jewelweed. In my experience, spotted jewelweed outnumbers yellow by about 5 to 1.

Side by side views of spotted (left) and yellow (right) jewelweed showing the differences in petal pattern, the length and angle of the nectar spur, and leaf venation

Jewelweed is pollinated by both hummingbirds and bees and watching these insects crawl into the depths of the flower to access the nectar pooled up in the spur is a fun way to spend a sunny afternoon! If you’re very lucky you may get to see a hummingbird feeding from the nectar spur.

A bee burrows into a jewelweed flower in search of nectar

The bee’s back is now coated in pollen from the pollen stalk dangling above it. The bee may now pollinate the next jewelweed it enters!

Both jewelweeds have a long blooming season from late spring through the early fall and are an attractive native wildflower to plant in a damp, shaded corner of your yard to attract pollinator insects and hummingbirds.

Learn more about how you can garden for native plants and wildlife by certifying your yard as a wildlife habitat through the Delaware Nature Society

https://www.delawarenaturesociety.org/what-we-do/protecting-habitats-wildlife/garden-for-wildlife/

 

By Ian Stewart

The buzz around this year’s Native Plant Sale is building to fever pitch! Our plant sale comes at the perfect time as we have finally emerged from the frigid gloom of an unusually long cold winter to find colorful wildflowers emerging all across the state. These ‘spring ephemerals’ are so-named because they only flower for a fairly short time since they start losing the sunlight once the trees leaf out.

We are fortunate to have a lot of fairly common attractive native plants in Delaware, and sometimes these get taken for granted. This is a pity, as several have some surprises in store if you look at them closely. Trout Lilies are a perennial often found growing in clumps which get their name because their mottled leaves resemble the sides of a Brook Trout, a freshwater fish. However, they take between 4 and 7 years to mature so the great majority of the lilies you see don’t produce a flower and have just a single leaf (top photo). Only the older, flowering plants have two leaves (second top). The beautiful nodding Lily flowers are harder to find but tend to occur in small colonies which are often visited by insects (bottom photos).

The familiar Mayapple has a similar subtlety. This distinctive umbrella-shaped wildflower of shady forest floors is often found in dense clusters of what look like identical plants, but if you look closely you will see that some have a forked, Y-shaped stem whereas most have just a single stem (below). Only the Y-shaped stems produce a flower then later the apple-like fruit. Mayapples are actually misnamed, as in May they still only have the white flower, which is found in the base of the fork. The hanging ‘apple’ doesn’t appear until later in the summer, and despite the name, is not pleasant to eat and may even be poisonous so we do not recommend that you try it.

Delaware is blessed with a kaleidoscope of beautiful native wildflowers in our area and below are a few of my favorites (from top, Virginia Bluebell, Cardinal Flower, Great Lobelia, Butterfly Weed).

These beautiful wildflowers are available at a reasonable price at the Native Plant Sale so if you want to able to observe these natural wonders in your own back yard just come on by. As well as their visual appeal they are popular with beneficial pollinator insects like bees and butterflies, so now you can have an idyllic native garden and help nature at the same time!

The Plant Sale is held at Coverdale Farm Preserve (543 Way Rd, Greenville, Delaware) Thursday May 3rdand Friday May 4th from 3pm to 7pm (member days) and Saturday May 5th (10am – 4pm) and Sunday May 6th (11am – 3pm) (open to public). Free admission if you just want to come and browse! Credit cards, checks and cash accepted. Click on the link below for more details.

http://www.delawarenaturesociety.org/NativePlantSale#.WuijZi7wa7Q

Autumn among the beeches

Ian Stewart

If life is getting you down or you’re feeling particularly stressed why not take a gentle afternoon stroll through a beech wood? Walking through a beech wood in the fall is a serene experience that will instantly melt away your troubles. And if you look closely, the beeches have a few surprises in store…..

The American Beech (Fagus grandifolia) is a fairly common tree across almost all of the eastern United States and is easily recognized by its smooth, pale gray bark and its above-ground ‘knees’ formed by the tops of its shallow roots. We have several stands of old, large beech trees around our DNS sites because early settlers tended to leave them alone as they often grow on hillsides which aren’t attractive sites for home building or farming, and also because their hard wood is difficult to cut.

At this time of year the ground beneath a beech wood is littered with a carpet of their golden leaves and if you wait long enough you will see a variety of mammals and birds rustling though them in search of fallen beech nuts. These distinctive triangular nuts emerge in pairs from their tough, furry husks when ripe and are beloved by deer, squirrels and Blue Jays and were apparently the favored food of the extinct Passenger Pigeon. Beech nuts are edible to humans once they have been peeled although they are apparently bitter and may even be toxic in large quantities so we do not recommend that you eat them.

Part of the reason beech woods are so attractive to walk through is that they are remarkably open, with very little understory of bushes or shrubs to navigate through. This is because beech trees are thought to be allelopathic, meaning they exude a chemical into the soil around them which inhibits the growth of other plants. Sometimes the only plant you see growing near a beech tree is a ring of ‘root sprouts’ growing around its trunk, which is a direct way through which beech trees spread in addition to their nuts.

Still, despite their placid outward appearance beech woods are tinged with intrigue. If you get down on your hands and knees you will notice that most of the trees have a circle of mysterious brown weedy stems around their base. These are known as Beechdrops (Epifagus virginiana) and are among a handful of plants that don’t photosynthesize but instead live parasitically by burrowing into the roots of beech trees and extracting their nutrients.

So please take the time to explore a beech wood this fall, but be sure to appreciate the small struggles going on underneath these giant trees!

By: Tim Freiday, Middle Run Project Coordinator

The group of DelNature staff and volunteers get ready to set off on the annual Bio-Blitz in Middle Run Natural Area.

On Sunday, September 3, 2017, Delaware Nature Society held the annual Bio-Blitz at Middle Run Natural Area. Although rainy at 6:00 am, the skies cleared by 7:00 am and it turned out to be a very productive day with over 200 different species of organism recorded. In the park, 88 species of birds were recorded. Some of the highlights were 20 species of warbler including a Brewster’s Warbler (a rarely seen hybrid), Nashville, Tennessee, Blackburnian, Cape May, and Black-throated Blue and Green Warblers. We had birds everywhere we looked, and had some great views of many. The girdled Bradford Pears continue to provide quality looks at some real quality birds, with American Redstarts, Tennessee, Magnolia, Black-and-white, and Chestnut-sided Warblers perching alongside much larger Brown Thrashers and Gray Catbirds. We also had a continuing Alder Flycatcher who “pipped” only a few times, and Veery were around today. Surprisingly, a nocturnal Common Nighthawk was also flying around in the late morning.  Check out the close-up Northern Flicker below!

 

All of the checklists for the day in chronological order are at the links below:

http://ebird.org/ebird/view/checklist/S38987553

http://ebird.org/ebird/view/checklist/S38976751

http://ebird.org/ebird/view/checklist/S38984241

There have been some excellent photos of some of the fall migrant warblers being posted on the Middle Run flickr account by the likes of Hank Davis and Derek Stoner. You can check out those pictures by following this link:

https://www.flickr.com/photos/middlerunbirding/

Around a 100 insects were identified at least to the family level with the help of UD entomologists Ashley Kennedy and Adam Mitchell. Some highlights from the arthropod realm include a Spiny Oak Slug caterpillar, Hickory Tussock Moth, Locust Borer, Ornate Plant Bug, Cicada Killer, Green Darner and many more. There was a very bright Red Admiral butterfly which must have just emerged. Participants learned about the food web of arthropods in our area, and got a glimpse of how complex it really is. Middle Run has a healthy mix of arthropods, with many predatory spiders and insects signifying an abundance of herbivorous insects. No wonder the birds like it here so much! It’s also not surprising that there are so many insects given the diversity and abundance of plants at Middle Run. At least 50 different species of plants were identified today, with many beneficial native species. Some are very showy and are flowering right now, like the Evening Primrose. We only found a handful of reptiles and amphibians today, but there were some nice ones such as Black Racer, Garter Snake, and American Toad.

Hickory Tussock Moth

Hickory Tussock Moth

This year’s BioBlitz showed how truly special and utterly important Middle Run Valley Park is for the multitude of life that our region supports. From the local birds and insects to the long distance migrants that refuel here, to the people that come and unwind by taking in the natural world Middle Run is a true gem that we should all be grateful for. In appreciating the importance of Middle Run we are shown the importance of conserving natural lands everywhere, and we are called to action to protect our natural world.

This past Tuesday was the first Tuesday Morning Bird Walk at Middle Run of the fall 2017 season. These walks are free and open to the public, and Delaware Nature Society staff will lead them each Tuesday at 8am through October.  The walks are sponsored by New Castle County Parks.  Come join us as we appreciate birds and nature!

Happy Birding!