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Ian Stewart

Sparrows are a mystery to most non-birders (and many birders too!) and it’s not hard to see why. The great majority of them are small, brown streaky birds that at this time of year are usually just glimpsed as they disappear into a tangle of undergrowth, so much so that sparrow sightings often get lumped into the catch-all category of ‘Little Brown Bird’ (hastily scribbled as ‘LBB’ in field notebooks from here to Alaska).

This is a great pity as sparrows are an under-appreciated group of birds in my opinion, and Delaware is awash with them during the winter because several species that breed as far away as northern Canada flood into our area and flock together with our resident sparrows. Tangled brush piles and weedy fields might not be attractive to an average human but they are very popular with sparrows who love to scuffle through them in search of seed as well as take cover in them if a hawk appears. On a good winter’s morning you might see more than half a dozen species of sparrow just by slowly walking along the edges of these brush piles and fields and waiting for them to appear.

A simple first step to identifying sparrows is to look at their breast as this lets you place them into one of two broad categories: those with streaked breasts and those with unstreaked breasts. The collage below is composed of sparrows banded during DNS’s Bird Conservation Program and up close you can see the differences between species in breast patterning, as well as the eyebrow stripes, moustaches and thin crown stripe found in many sparrows.

Top row (L to R). Song, Fox, Savannah 2nd row. Lincoln’s, Field, American Tree (showing ‘stickpin’ in breast) 3rd row. Swamp, Chipping (winter), Slate-colored Junco 4th row. White-crowned, White-throated (adult), White-throated (immature)

The collage below shows the diversity of sizes, shapes and colors seen in sparrows’ beaks. For example, the beak of Song Sparrows is intermediate in length and depth while Fox Sparrows have a short but stout beak and both Lincoln’s and Swamp Sparrows have long, thin beaks. Some sparrows have all-brown beaks while others have beaks that are gray (White-throated), orange (Field), pink (Junco) or jet black (Chipping Sparrow during the breeding season). The American Tree Sparrow has the most distinctive beak of all, being dark brown above but yellow below. There is also quite a lot of variation in the angle of the forehead, the size of the eye, and the curvature of the upper beak.

Top row (L to R). Song, Fox (with 2 ticks!) and Field 2nd row. Chipping (summer), Chipping (winter), Savannah 3rd row. Lincoln’s, Swamp, American Tree 4th row. White-throated, Slate-colored Junco, White-crowned (immature).

Hopefully these photographs have convinced you that sparrows are more different and beautiful than you had thought. My advice is to slowly explore the undergrowth on a crisp, still winter’s morning and try to get a good look at every species you see. Rest assured, you will be rewarded!

 

By Shannon Giordano, Public Relations & Social Media Coordinator

Fall is a prime time for planting trees, and Delaware Nature Society has planted quite a few in the last three weeks. Planting trees in the fall can be the best time because the trees are going dormant for the winter and the ground is often very moist, which means when spring comes and the soil starts to warm, the trees will be ready to grow.

In the past several weeks, Delaware Nature Society has planted over 600 trees at three locations. On October 27 at Coverdale Farm Preserve, the planting of 12 enormous Red Oaks and Bicolor Oaks with 9 foot root balls and full canopies began. They were brought in one at a time by truck and are being placed in a section of field that is currently used for feed hay. This planting is part of Coverdale’s 10-year Master Plan. The field the trees were planted in will be turned into a grazing pasture that will house movable animal shelters. These trees were planted in a specific area in order to create a buffer for the Farm’s neighbors, and provide shade and forage for the livestock. All 12 of the trees have been put into the ground and other areas of the farm are designated for reforestation in the future. A big thank you goes to Hank Davis who not only funded the purchase of the trees, but hand selected the trees and is also funding their installation. Hank is a true champion of Coverdale Farm Preserve, and for that we are ever grateful.

Last weekend, two large tree planting events were held on Saturday morning. The first event took place at Middle Run Natural Area where approximately 150 volunteers helped to plant 400 trees. The tree planting is just one aspect of the biodiversity management project that Delaware Nature Society manages at Middle Run under contract with New Castle County. Jim White, DelNature’s Senior Fellow for Land Biodiversity Management, heads up the planting efforts each year. “We are working to increase the park’s forest habitat as well as to increase stream buffers next to Middle Run, which is a tributary of White Clay Creek,” says Jim. Increasing forest habitat provides food and shelter for a wide variety of native wildlife. Stream buffers slow down and filter pollutants and help to reduce erosion. Tree planting also has many other benefits, including making a positive impact on climate change. County Executive, Matthew Meyer also attended the event, lending a hand with the planting. Since 1991, thousands of volunteers have helped to plant about 55,000 trees at this New Castle County park, which is located near Paper Mill and Possum Park roads in Newark.

The second planting event last weekend was held at DuPont Environmental Education Center (DEEC). The Rotary Club of Wilmington planted 200 trees in the Russel Peterson Urban Wildlife Refuge with staff from the DNREC Division of Fish and Wildlife.  The project was funded by members of the Rotary Club who donated $2,000 for the trees along with funding from DNREC. The tree planting is part of an effort over the past 20 years to restore the freshwater tidal marsh with native plants to provide habitat for waterfowl, song birds, deer, raccoon, beaver, and even river otter. The Rotary Club of Wilmington planted the trees as part of a challenge to all Rotary Clubs across the globe. International Rotary President, Ian H.S. Riseley challenged every Rotary club to make a difference by planting one tree for each of its members between the start of the Rotary year on July 1, 2017 and Earth Day on April 22, 2018.

A sincere thank you to everyone who was a part of each of these events!

by Dakin Hewlett, Watershed Education Coordinator

DEEC staff member tags and releases a Monarch Butterfly.

Visitors watch as a DEEC staff member tags and releases a Monarch Butterfly. Photo by John Harrod

Fall not only brings the oncoming burst of changing colors, but also marks the beginning of the monarch butterfly’s incredible migration to Mexico. The DuPont Environmental Education Center highlighted the butterfly’s unique journey at their 4th Annual Marsh & Monarch Celebration on September 23rd. Blue skies and sunshine greeted over 200 people who came out to celebrate the tagging and releasing of 8 monarchs. Leading up to the event, DEEC staff and visitors watched and waited as the reared butterflies transformed from caterpillar to chrysalis and finally to beautiful monarchs ready for release.

When the highly anticipated release date came, eager groups of visitors gathered on the boardwalk with a DEEC staff member to learn about monarchs and their important relationship to the milkweed plant. Adult monarch butterflies lay their eggs on the plant and the caterpillars then eat the milkweed as their sole food source. If you want to attract more monarchs to your garden, planting milkweed is a great way to do just that!

Each butterfly was then tagged with a special tracking sticker for research being done at the University of Kansas. Tagging helps monitor monarch migration patterns and the overall health of the population. Finally, the moment came that we had all been waiting for…A few lucky kids became wide-eyed as a butterfly was placed on their outstretched finger and took a few steps while deciding whether it was ready to take flight. Each time a butterfly took off the crowd clapped and cheered with enthusiasm as the magnitude of the 2,000-mile journey sunk in.

Canoeing the pond.

Canoeing the pond. Photo by John Harrod

Visitors also spent the day enjoying free, interactive activities throughout the marsh. Adults and kids alike enjoyed an on-the-water experience canoeing the pond, learning basic paddling skills, and attempting to navigate the water without getting stuck in the plants.

Many chose to get their feet wet while dip-netting for aquatic animals such as dragonfly larvae, scuds, and small fish. Dip-netting is not only a fun way to explore the pond, but is also a great tool to use when measuring water quality. By studying the biodiversity of the pond, staff members at DEEC can better understand the condition of the water. Guest staff from Stroud Water Research Center echoed that sentiment by providing visitors with a chance to conduct their own water quality tests. Participants turned scientists, learned how to test for pH levels, temperature, turbidity, nitrates, and conductivity with hands on experiments like the one shown below.

A curious visitor uses a turbidity tube to test the clarity of the pond water.

A curious visitor uses a turbidity tube to test the clarity of the pond water. Photo by John Harrod

Inside the nature center many other activities were underway such as “Zuumba like an Animal,” on the 4th floor. If you happened to saunter upstairs you were met with a group of kids hopping around the room like frogs or belting out animal sounds at the top of their lungs.  The 3rd floor stayed jam-packed all day with arts and crafts tables, a bike & kayak raffle sponsored by the Alliance for Watershed Education, and interpreters sharing all things marsh. The “Snapper Lab” on the 1st floor displayed many live animals that call the refuge home such as a black ratsnake, snapping turtle, and green frog. On the way out visitors stopped by to chat with Delaware Nature Society’s Habitat Stewards and left carrying armfuls of free milkweed to plant in their own gardens for the next generation of monarchs. Thank you to all who came out to celebrate and see you next year!

 

Free milkweed plants and art projects to take home after a wonderful day at the marsh.

Free milkweed plants and art projects to take home after a wonderful day at the marsh. Photo by John Harrod

By: Tim Freiday, Middle Run Project Coordinator

The group of DelNature staff and volunteers get ready to set off on the annual Bio-Blitz in Middle Run Natural Area.

On Sunday, September 3, 2017, Delaware Nature Society held the annual Bio-Blitz at Middle Run Natural Area. Although rainy at 6:00 am, the skies cleared by 7:00 am and it turned out to be a very productive day with over 200 different species of organism recorded. In the park, 88 species of birds were recorded. Some of the highlights were 20 species of warbler including a Brewster’s Warbler (a rarely seen hybrid), Nashville, Tennessee, Blackburnian, Cape May, and Black-throated Blue and Green Warblers. We had birds everywhere we looked, and had some great views of many. The girdled Bradford Pears continue to provide quality looks at some real quality birds, with American Redstarts, Tennessee, Magnolia, Black-and-white, and Chestnut-sided Warblers perching alongside much larger Brown Thrashers and Gray Catbirds. We also had a continuing Alder Flycatcher who “pipped” only a few times, and Veery were around today. Surprisingly, a nocturnal Common Nighthawk was also flying around in the late morning.  Check out the close-up Northern Flicker below!

 

All of the checklists for the day in chronological order are at the links below:

http://ebird.org/ebird/view/checklist/S38987553

http://ebird.org/ebird/view/checklist/S38976751

http://ebird.org/ebird/view/checklist/S38984241

There have been some excellent photos of some of the fall migrant warblers being posted on the Middle Run flickr account by the likes of Hank Davis and Derek Stoner. You can check out those pictures by following this link:

https://www.flickr.com/photos/middlerunbirding/

Around a 100 insects were identified at least to the family level with the help of UD entomologists Ashley Kennedy and Adam Mitchell. Some highlights from the arthropod realm include a Spiny Oak Slug caterpillar, Hickory Tussock Moth, Locust Borer, Ornate Plant Bug, Cicada Killer, Green Darner and many more. There was a very bright Red Admiral butterfly which must have just emerged. Participants learned about the food web of arthropods in our area, and got a glimpse of how complex it really is. Middle Run has a healthy mix of arthropods, with many predatory spiders and insects signifying an abundance of herbivorous insects. No wonder the birds like it here so much! It’s also not surprising that there are so many insects given the diversity and abundance of plants at Middle Run. At least 50 different species of plants were identified today, with many beneficial native species. Some are very showy and are flowering right now, like the Evening Primrose. We only found a handful of reptiles and amphibians today, but there were some nice ones such as Black Racer, Garter Snake, and American Toad.

Hickory Tussock Moth

Hickory Tussock Moth

This year’s BioBlitz showed how truly special and utterly important Middle Run Valley Park is for the multitude of life that our region supports. From the local birds and insects to the long distance migrants that refuel here, to the people that come and unwind by taking in the natural world Middle Run is a true gem that we should all be grateful for. In appreciating the importance of Middle Run we are shown the importance of conserving natural lands everywhere, and we are called to action to protect our natural world.

This past Tuesday was the first Tuesday Morning Bird Walk at Middle Run of the fall 2017 season. These walks are free and open to the public, and Delaware Nature Society staff will lead them each Tuesday at 8am through October.  The walks are sponsored by New Castle County Parks.  Come join us as we appreciate birds and nature!

Happy Birding!