Ian Stewart

A major analysis published last week (Rosenberg et al. 2019, Science, downloadable by scrolling down here) makes depressing reading for anyone interested in birds or in nature in general. A team of leading North American researchers analyzed almost 50 years of data from multiple sources and calculated that about 3 billion birds (= 3 thousand million!) have been lost from the continent since the 1970s. This staggering total suggests that over 1 in 4 North American birds have disappeared in less than half a century. Some groups of birds have been hit especially hard, with over half (53%) of all grassland birds disappearing as more and more of their habitat is plowed under to make way for agriculture or development. Shorebirds are close to the hearts of many Delawareans since they famously stop to refuel in the Delaware Bay on their way north to breed and yet these are among the most strongly declining birds, with a drop of 37% in 50 years. The bejewelled warblers, those colorful songbirds which symbolize migration for many birders, have dropped by 38%.

A Rusty Blackbird, one of several rapidly declining bird species

Some of the report’s findings simply confirmed the sad stories recounted by long-time Delaware birders that species which used to be merely uncommon are now very hard to find, like the Rusty Blackbird. However, some of the other findings were much more surprising and perhaps more troubling because they revealed serious declines in groups of birds usually taken for granted as ‘common’ like blackbirds (44%), finches (37%) and sparrows (38%). It is probably not a coincidence that almost all of these species feed their nestlings on insects, another major taxon that has seen dramatic declines.

A male Red-winged Blackbird breeding in a meadow at Coverdale Farm Preserve.

The report wasn’t all doom and gloom however. Waterbirds (ducks and geese) have shown a resurgence (+56%) thanks to better management and protection of wetland and marsh habitats based on millions of dollars raised by the sale of Duck Stamps to hunters and non-consumptive users as well as federal and state wildlife grants. Several birds of prey have also rebounded thanks in part to the ban on DDT, including a remarkable 300% increase in the numbers of the fish-eating Osprey. These success stories show that bird declines can be reversed if we act quickly enough to protect and preserve their habitats since the loss or degradation of their breeding, wintering or migratory habitats is the root cause of almost all bird declines.

Birds provide many ecological benefits like seed dispersal, pollination and control of arthropod pests but are also a source of everyday enjoyment for millions of North Americans who enjoy bird watching or feeding birds. Birds are also an excellent way to stimulate an interest in nature, especially among children, because they are active during the day and present in all four seasons, and many have colorful plumage or attractive songs. In short, birds are perhaps the most visible and recognizable component of most North American ecosystems, and if they are in such a serious decline then many other parts of the ecosystem probably are too. A loss of 3 billion birds in less than 50 years is simply not sustainable.

A mixed flock of sparrows in a typical suburban yard in winter. One day, this may not be a common sight.

Although the challenges birds face are large and on a continental scale, there are several fairly simple ways that you can help birds in your own yard or neighborhood. Try this excellent list from Cornell University!

 

Ian Stewart

One of my favorite books is Arthur Conan Doyle’s ‘The Hound of the Baskervilles’, in which a mysterious beast pursues Sherlock Holmes through the eerie mist of an English moor. Driving the back roads of northern Delaware in the early morning reminds me of this gloomy setting because many of the trees are now shrouded with ghostly tents.

A typical scene in Delaware in late summer

These tents were constructed by the fall webworm, which is the caterpillar of an innocuous white moth (Hyphantria cunea). This native moth which lays hundreds of eggs on the underside of a leaf during the late spring and early summer then promptly dies. The eggs hatch out into tiny caterpillars which soon build extensive, multi-layered webs around groups of leaves for protection and perhaps insulation. The caterpillars start chomping away on the leaves within each web until all that remains is a skeleton of the indigestible frame of the leaf and a large pile of dark brown frass (feces).

The droppings pile up below a cluster of fall webworms

Once the caterpillars become large enough they chew their way out of the web and keep munching on leaves before overwintering as a pupa attached to the bark or in the leaf litter below the tree, and emerging as an adult moth the following spring. Unlike many butterflies and moths, fall webworms are not specific to a small range of trees or bushes, and have been recorded on almost 100 different host trees. My impression is that webs are most common on black walnuts and black cherries, perhaps because it is easier to build a web on these trees because they have long drooping branches with multiple leaflets. Or maybe it just reflects the fact that both these trees are common in our area? I also think the number of webworms is increasing each year and have seen several totally denuded trees this summer.

Skeletonized leaf of a hickory after the webworms have left

Contrary to popular opinion, fall webworms are not the same species as tent caterpillars, although they do share certain features. The eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma americanum) also builds extensive webs in which it chomps away at the leaves, and is also the larval form of an unremarkable dull moth (somewhat ironically given how conspicuous the caterpillars are!). However, the tent caterpillar is active in spring and usually builds its tents in the crotch of a branch whereas the fall webworm’s webs are usually at the end of a branch.

Interestingly, one would think that both tent caterpillars and fall webworms would be a magnet for hungry birds, especially because their appearance coincides with spring and fall migration respectively. The webs are easy to find and contain dense clusters of juicy caterpillars, which are a major food source for many small birds. Surprisingly however, very few birds seem to eat them apart from orioles and cuckoos, and it may not be a coincidence that these both have long thin beaks which they can poke through the layers of webbing without risking it sticking on their eyes. It may also be that the caterpillars are unpalatable because they have long hairs (especially the fall webworm, see the photo below) or contain toxic substances. Perhaps birds prefer to wait until they become moths the following year and eat them then. The caterpillars are not entirely safe within the web however, as several species of predatory invertebrates will try to penetrate it including wasps, ladybugs and most dramatically, the fiery searcher (Calosoma scrutator), a large and colorful beetle which climbs trees at night to feast on clusters of caterpillars.

Hairy caterpillar of the fall webworm

Fiery searcher photographed by Joe Sebastiani

Although many homeowners become concerned when a tree in their yard becomes coated with webs, there is no reason to be alarmed. Fall webworms usually do not do the tree any long-lasting damage because only a fraction of the leaves are eaten, so the tree can still photosynthesize for the rest of the summer and thereby store enough nutrients in the root to get it through the winter. Next year the new leaves will grow in just fine. Although trees with heavy infestations can appear almost leafless (like the one below), in the vast majority of cases fall webworms are nothing more than an unsightly pest and it’s not worth trying to remove them, especially as they are usually high in the tree. Instead, why not just admire these lowly creatures for building their own homes?

A heavy infestation of fall webworm

Ian Stewart & Lori Athey

Now that spring is here many Delawareans are enjoying the colorful wildflowers blooming in their backyard, local parks and road sides. Unfortunately, the great majority of those currently flowering are alien weeds which were either deliberately or accidentally introduced by Europeans. These plants found themselves in a new environment with few or no natural enemies and spread rapidly across our area. Each weed produces hundreds if not thousands of seeds and an entire backyard can be riddled with them in just a few years.

The three most common yellow-flowered weeds have been covered in a previous blog (http://blog.delawarenaturesociety.org/2015/05/06/the-not-so-mellow-yellows/) and this follow-up blog highlights some of the other visually-appealing wildflowers that people may not realize are aggressively invasive aliens.

Three common backyard weeds stay low but spread rapidly to form sun-blocking carpets that inhibit or prevent the growth of any native seeds beneath them. Speedwell (Veronica sp.) is one of the first wildflowers to emerge and its four-petaled circular blue flower can be seen as early as March. There are several species of speedwell but most are alien. Ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea) produces dozens of tiny purple flowers and spreads by underground rhizomes which makes it especially difficult to control since pulling one part of the plant will not suffice. Clover (Trifolium sp.) is particularly common in farm fields, perhaps because it may have been introduced as livestock feed, but is now ubiquitous in urban and suburban settings. Clovers have three leaves, each with a distinctive white chevron, though finding one with four leaves may bring you luck! There are two sister species, the red and white clover, which are named after the color of their flower.

Speedwell (Left) and Clover (Right)

Ground ivy

Two striking members of the Mint family also stay quite low to the ground but are easily seen because they often grow in large patches. Purple deadnettle (Lamium purpureum) and henbit (L. amplexicaule, also known as clasping deadnettle) often grow together in fields and backyard although the former is much more common.

purple deadnettle

Henbit

Finally, three conspicuous white-flowered members of the Mustard family are widespread throughout the Piedmont. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolate) and roadside penny-cress (Thlaspi alliaceum) are both knee-high single-stemmed weeds which form large clumps in sunny areas, while hairy bittercress (Cardamine hirsute) is quite a bit smaller and branches into multiple small flowers.

Garlic mustard

roadside penny-cress

Penny-cress up close

Purple deadnettle (on left) and hairy bittercress (on right)

These alien wildflowers are especially problematic because they bloom in early spring and may have already produced seeds before householders begin mowing. Although it is an uphill battle, most weeds can be controlled by hand-pulling them before they go to seed, especially if the whole root system is removed.  Repeated early mowing or weed-whacking will deplete the weeds’ resources before they even flower. If you have a large yard or field an alternative option is to gradually convert it into a meadow with long grass and native wildflowers which is left standing throughout the winter and early spring. This helps to restrict early-growing weeds like ground ivy and deadnettle by reducing the amount of sunlight they receive.

Once you have removed the alien weeds you can replace them with native wildflowers which are much better for wildlife, especially our declining pollinator insects as well as the animals that feed on them. A perfect opportunity is the Delaware Nature Society’s Native Plant Sale which is held at Coverdale Farm in Greenville. It starts with a member’s-only day on Thursday May 2nd (1pm-7pm; though you are welcome to attend and join in person) and is then open to the public Friday May 3rd (3pm-7pm) and Saturday May 4th (9am – 3pm). Admission is free and there will be plenty of staff and volunteers present to answer any questions about plants and help you load them into your car!

The full catalog is online here but just to whet your appetite, here is a selection of groundcover plants which are tough and fast-growing and have a decent chance at outcompeting those pesky weeds!

Dry sunny location

Andropogon virginicus (Broom Sedge) grass

Coreopsis verticillata (Whorled Tickseed) perennial

Geum fragarioides (Barren Strawberry) evergreen perennial

Phlox subulata (Moss Phlox) evergreen perennial

 

Dry shaded location

Antennaria plantaginifolia (Woman’s Tobacco Pussytoes) semi-evergreen perennial

Chasmanthium latifolium (Wild Oats) grass

Geranium maculatum (Wild Geranium) perennial

Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas Fern) evergreen fern

 

Moist shaded location

Asarum canadense (Wild Ginger) perennial

Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (Cinnamon Fern) fern

Phlox stolonifera (Creeping Phlox) perennial

Zizia aurea (Golden Alexanders) perennial

 

Moist to wet sunny location

Carex cherokeensis (Cherokee Sedge) grass

Eupatorium perfoliatum (Boneset) perennial

Iris versicolor (Blue Flag) perennial

Panicum virgatum (Switchgrass) grass

 

By Matt Bailey, Delaware Nature Society Volunteer:

It is the depths of winter.  What better time to wrap your hands around a warm mug of your favorite comfort drink?  If you live in the US, that hot drink is statistically most likely to be coffee.  The warmth (and steam) wafting from your mug might put you in the mind of mid-Atlantic Spring and Summer and the wealth of songbirds they will bring.

Right now, Neotropical (western hemisphere) migrant birds like orioles, warblers, and hummingbirds are making their livings in Central and South America.  Many Paleotropical (eastern hemisphere) migrants are also awaiting the call to head north from their wintering grounds (pun intended).  Ecuador, Guatemala, Sumatra, Ethiopia are all on the list of important wintering locations as well as famed regions for coffee farming.  In Central and South America, most Neotropical migrants depend on tropical forest to successfully over-winter and survive to head north and breed.  Significant portions of Central and South America have been cleared of forest to make way for coffee monocultures.

This is a shade-grown coffee plantation that was visited on a DNS trip to Costa Rica in 2011. In order for the habitat to be functional for a diversity of songbirds, the overstory trees need to be diverse and native. Some shade-grown canopies consist of Eucalyptus trees, which aren’t native and don’t support a diversity of insects or bird-life.  Photo by Joe Sebastiani

We can speak up for these overwintering songbirds with our dollars in the marketplace and in the coffeeshops.  The most typical method for growing coffee involves taking a large parcel of land in the right habitat and shearing off the canopy trees to make room for coffee shrubs.  This eliminates key habitat for overwintering songbirds.

American Redstart is a Neotropical migrant that will utilize shade-grown coffee plantations in Central America. Photo by Joe Sebastiani

Fortunately, it doesn’t have to be this way.  There is a coffee growing method called shade-grown, or bird-friendly agriculture.  In this type of farming, coffee varieties can be chosen and growing regimes can be adjusted that allow the majority of the growing areas to remain forested.

The resulting crop yields award-winning coffee that lacks the bitter taste of unnecessary loss of habitat.  A win\win that affords us the chance to steep peacefully in the aroma of a sustainable harvest.

The Smithsonian Institute has the gold standard for certifying coffee plantations as being bird-friendly.  Just look for the logo below on the package to be sure you are purchasing the correct beans.  In addition to retaining canopy, Bird-friendly certification standards consider a variety of factors including promoting insect biodiversity and forgoing the use of pesticides.  The American Birding Association, whose national headquarters is in Delaware City, sells numerous varieties of Bird-Friendly coffee on their website and at the headquarters.

Shade-grown/bird-friendly coffee can be found at several local grocers and the local roaster Golden Valley Farms in West Chester.  Just make sure that the coffee you buy has the Smithsonian Bird Friendly certification on it.  Also, if you stop into your favorite coffee shop, be sure to ask if they have any shade-grown brews available.  If enough customers ask, an affirmative answer will likely eventually follow.  Put your dollar votes to work for conservation!

Speaking of birding, this Friday through Monday, February 15-18, 2019, Delaware Nature Society is participating in the Great Backyard Bird Count. This is an international effort to capture a snapshot of birds that are being seen around the world, organized by the National Audubon Society. If you participate, Birds & Beans Coffee company is offering a $5 coupon if you order Bird Friendly coffee on their website.  Just use the promo code GBBC$5OFF for your on-line order, which is good through the end of February.  You can participate at home on your own (see previous link) with a nice cup of Shade-grown coffee, or join us for some guided birding opportunities:

“Pop-Up Birders” will be coming to where you live, work, and play on February 15 at the following locations:

  • Newark Reservoir Parking Lot, Old Paper Mill Rd., Newark – 9am – Judy Montgomery
  • Brandywine Town Center Movie Theater – 10am – Joe Sebastiani
  • Tri-state Bird Rescue, Possum Hollow Rd., Newark – 11am – Judy Montgomery
  • BlackRock Incorporated, 100 Bellevue Parkway, Wilm. – noon – Joe Sebastiani and Kathie O’Neil
  • Dupont Environmental Education Center, Wilm. Riverfront – 1pm – Ian Stewart
  • Paper Mill Park, Polly Drummond Hill Road, Newark – 2pm – Judy Montgomery
  • Valley Garden Park, Rt. 82, Greenville – 3pm – Jim White

By attending one of these walks, receive a voucher for a free sample bag of bird seed at the Wild Birds Unlimited store in Hockessin.

We will also host a Breakfast and Bird Count program on Friday, February 15 with Ornithologist Ian Stewart at Coverdale Farm Preserve.  $15 ($10 for DNS members) includes the hearty breakfast and a guided bird walk in our beautiful preserve near Greenville.

Want a bit more adventure? Join us for Kent County Birding Day, Saturday, February 16. Meet at either Abbott’s Mill Nature Center or Ashland Nature Center and travel by van to Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and other locations to look for waterfowl, eagles, and many more wintering species.  $30 ($20 for DNS members) includes van transportation as well as the guided birding tour.

For more information, please call (302) 239-2334 or visit www.delnature.org.